Arindam Sarkar

Business Analyst, Merkle Sokrati



Manipal University Jaipur
2015 - 2019

Work Experience

Business Analyst
Merkle Sokrati
Nov 2020 - Jun 2021
SecuredX Labs
Jul 2019 - Nov 2020

my case studies

Here is my take on the problem statements which were of particular interest to me. For ease of scanning, these have been structured as follows:
Improve a feature to reduce user journey friction on the TataSky Application
Tata Sky is an Indian direct broadcast satellite (DTH) service provider
  • Pre feature discovery A/B Testing (after 1 week):
    %age of people using the calling feature v/s %age of people using the in-app button.
  • Post feature discovery A/B Testing (after 2 months):
    %age of people using the calling feature v/s %age of people using in-app button.
  • The MoM %age change in the number of users using the feature shall determine the success of the proposed feature.
Why do we need it?
  • Present System: To temporarily pause a TataSky connection, the user has to call the customer care to get the job done. On the other hand, to resume the connection the user has to do the same or has to drop a call on a given number and cut it as soon as it rings, which doesn’t solve the purpose most of the time.
  • Proposed System: To temporarily pause a TataSky connection, the user has to open the TataSky mobile application/website & tap on the Start/Stop button to resume/pause their D2H connection.  
How do we support the proposed solution?
We first analyze the researched data, check the competition parity. If the reseached data and competition parity are suggestive of a heads up then we identify the frictions in the user journey & move on to calculating the Opportunity Score - to find out the most fallacy problem. After the problem has been identified - we ideate solutions for the same, calculate RICE score to understand the effort v/s impact trade off.
Availability of 1 click button on the application - for eg. on various OTT platforms - to Start & Stop the service as per the user’s convenience.Installation of a tracker at the back end to monitor reversal of payments to customers.Creating an integrated page for all the channels while having categories & subcategories for Genres and Languages.The users should have the facility to recharge their connection without switching on the Set Top Box.
Interested to know more?
Analysis of forthcoming hindrances for Zee5 to acquire &retain users to improve it's Revenue.
  • Revenue - Initially, 6 months post expansion in a country, the Revenue metrics shall not move much but as user engagement & content increases, it’ll increasesteadily.
  • ARPU - The ARPU shall be affected initially. With time it shall increase as content increases the purchasing power of the users shall also come into play.Subscription Velocity: As quantity & quality of content increases, the SubscriptionVelocity shall also increase. Initially it will be low during the Activation & Acquisition phase of the users.
Revenue Sources - Understanding the sources of Revenue geography wise
As per the present scenario in terms of revenue, Zee5 has a combination of ad-supported content and key content that sits behind a subscription. Thus, Total Revenue = Revenue from Ad Supported Users + Revenue from Paid Users. We further dive deep into understanding the psychology of the users for ad-supported content & premium content,geographically. We do keep in mind that Zee5 prioritizes on the Ad supported market. But after a point Revenue can be increased by production of Premium content which shall increase the number of paid subscribers on the application - boosting the revenue.
Plan Of Action
  • Zee5 should expand in countries with high Purchasing Power in order to increaseRevenue.
  • Metrics to consider while choosing country - Purchasing Power, Percentage of tech-savvyaudience, Volume of relevant audience as per content & Volume of audience accustomedto OTT viewership.
  • Zee5’s consists of only Bollywood & other Indian regional content at the moment. Thus,initially it should target new countries having Indian & subcontinent citizens. For eg.,U.S.A & Sweden.
Acquisition of new users
  • To  acquire new users in existing countries (except India & Subcontinent) & new countries,  Zee5 has to produce original content in their regional languages, English & also buy copyrights of their Movies. Screening of regional (country) specific recent release movies shall increase viewership & engagement.
  • Partnerships with telcos shall increase downloads & viewerships (Bangladesh’s Model of Zee5). Content comes into play at this time, if the viewers in high purchasing power countries like the content & find it relevant - a habit shall be formed! - they shall subscribe to the plan.
  • Yearly subscriptions contribute to the majority of the revenue (and high ARPU) from paid subscribers but having Daily & Weekly subscription plans for new countries shall increase engagement & relevant content can convert the users to Yearly Plan Subscribers.
Interested to know more?
How can Spotify increase its ARPU?
Spotify is the largest music streaming service & media service providers with over 406 million monthly active users, including 180 million paying subscribers, as of December 2021.
  • Revenue
  • ARPU
Breaking down the problem
ARPU or Average Revenue Per User depends on 2 factors mentioned below: -

1. Total Revenue (Revenue from Ad supported users + Premium subscription users)
2. Total no. of users (No. of Ad supported users + No. of premium subscription users)

Formula: ARPU = Total Revenue/Total no. of Users

Therefore, it is noted that the revenue generated by the application has 2 sources i.e., The ad supported users & the premium subscription users
Determining the major revenue source
For the year 2020, premium subscribers contributed to €7.1B to the revenue whereas ad supported users contributed to €7.4M  of the total revenue. The above statistical trend has been continuing since the inception of Spotify, Thus, it can be safe to say that Premium subscribers drive 90% of the total revenue generated by spotify.
Factors Affecting Revenue
  • Pricing Model -  Introducing new plans as well as tariff alteration in existing plans & Freemium for first 3 months.
  • Growth (Geo Expansion) - Expansion shall help in revenue growth and there will be initial drop in  ARPU but in the long term it shall be beneficial.
  • Product - Product changes can be made on the application which shall increase the pricing power of  the premium plan & shall appeal to the ad supported user as more value for money
Interested to know more?
Product Teardown
Spenny is a micro saving and investment application that sets up a portfolio for users by collecting spare change from daily transactions.
Interested to know more?

My Product Observations

Why has Netflix introduced the "Fast Laughs" section?
  • Content consumers are of 3 types - the ones who watch movies/TV series on OTT platforms, users watching short YouTube videos & users watching short reels on Social Media as well as on Youtube.
  • Netflix very well understood that entertainment consumer's attention span has dropped rapidly post habit formation of the Reels feature & the addictiveness of the feature is too high.
  • For eg., if a person gets bored while watching a Netflix, then they shall switch to Reels on their favoured application but a person watching reels is less likely to watch a show on Netflix unless has a pure desire to watch a particular movie/TV series which is again independent of the person's attraction towards the Netflix application.
  • Thus, to increase user engagement - particularly improve minutes/session - on the Netflix application with the help of a already formed user habbit, Netflix played a masterstroke by inroducing "Fast Laughs".
Dark Pattern at play for the Zoom car app
  • The Zoom car does not let the user upgrade to a higher priced car on the application & it only allows the user to cancel the booking. So, why would a company want a user to drop off in search of a new car? Seems strange right?
  • It is a dark pattern. The company knows that there are very less competitors & the chances of a drop off are less likely. Taking undue advantage of the situation it only lets users cancel a booking and book a new car. Post cancellation they take upto 15 - 30 days for the refund.
  • Till the time the user's money is in their account, they get Interest from it. Thus, by simply letting users upgrade shall be a simple implementation but a major trade off for the company - thus, a major dark pattern.
What is Groww doing better than its peers?
  • Groww has a well structured, clean & clear Dashboard. This enables new users to understand & explore the unknowns of the world of investments.
  • Also, showing sections like "Top Gainers", "Top Losers" & "Stocks in News" keeps the user updated regarding the happenings in the stock market.
  • The difficult to comprehend terms have an 'i" button close to it. A simple tap educates the user of the same.
  • Other small detailing like reducing the overwhelming feeling of numbers by intelligent designs elements like one-tap switching from Market Value of a company to 52 week high/low to another value.
  • Clean slated as well as content rich information availability on the Stock Description page, with "i" button to educate the user regarding the difficult finance terms and metrics.
  • Providing educative information regarding various topics related to investments in form of notification nudges keep the core users hooked onto the app - a great "hook" in the whole hook cycle.